EBV class EBV candidate
Genetic composition Co-ancestry
Allelic diversity
Population genetic differentiation
Breed and variety diversity
Species populations Species distribution
Population abundance
Population structure by age/size class
Species traits Phenology
Body mass
Natal dispersion distance
Migratory behavior
Demographic traits
Physiological traits
Community composition Taxonomic diversity
Species interactions
Ecosystem funtion Net primary productivity
Secondary productivity
Nutrient retention
Disturbance regime
Ecosystem structure Habitat structure
Ecosystem extent and fragmentation
Ecosystem composition by functional type

EBV class - Genetic composition


Co-ancestry

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Pairwise relatedness among individuals or inbreeding coefficient of selected species, within and among populations of each species
Generation time
Available for many species but few populations, and little systematic sampling over time This variable provides a good measure of the genetic independence of allele frequencies among individuals and about their susceptibility to lowered fitness. Target: 12

Allelic diversity

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Allelic richness from genotypes of selected species (e.g. endangered species and domesticated species) at multiple locations (statistically representative of the species distribution)
Generation time
Data avalailable for several species and for several locations, but little global systematic sampling It is one the most used variables to measure genetic diversity, and can support the estimation of indicators such as “Trends in genetic diversity of selected species” and the “Red List Index”. Targets: 12, 13

Population genetic differentiation

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Gene frequency differentiation (Fst and other measures) among populations or of a subpopulation compared to the metapopulation of selected species
Generation time
Data available for many species but often for a limited number of populations. Easy to augment datasets It is one the most used variables to measure genetic diversity, and can support the estimation of indicators such as “Trends in genetic diversity of selected species” and the “Red List Index”. Targets: 12, 13

Breed and variety diversity

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Number of animals of each livestock breed and proportion of farmed area under each local crop variety, at multiple locations
5 to 10 years
Large datasets have been compiled by national organizations and FAO for livestock breeds, but there is insufficient systematic sampling for coverage of local crop varieties It is an essential variable to estimate the indicator “Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals and cultivated plants”. Target: 13

EBV class - Species populations


Species distribution

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility

Relevance and
related CBD 2020
targets

Presence surveys for groups of species easy to monitor, over an extensive network of sites with geographic representativeness. Potential role for incidental data from any spatial location
1 to >10 years
Presence surveys are available for a larger number of species than population counts and can make use of existing distribution atlas. Some efforts for data compilation and integration exist (GBIF, IUCN, Map of Life). There is an increasing trend for data contributed by citizen scientists (Observado, iNaturalist) Abundance & distribution of populations/taxon per se is an intuitive biodiversity metric with public resonance. Abundance & distribution contributes to extinction risk indicators & indicators of supply of ES associated with particular spp. Range shifts expected under climate change. Targets: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15

Population abundance

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and
related CBD 2020
targets
Population counts for groups of species easy to monitor and/or important for ecosystem services, over an extensive network of sites with geographic representativeness
1 year
Population counts underway for a significant number of species in each of the following groups: birds, butterflies, mammals, plankton, important fisheries, coral reef fishes. Most of these extensive networks are geographically restricted. Much of the data are currently being collected by citizen science networks Abundance & distribution of populations/taxon per se is an intuitive biodiversity metric with public resonance. Abundance & distribution contributes to extinction risk indicators & indicators of supply of ES associated with particular spp. Range shifts expected under climate change. Targets: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15

Population structure by age/size class

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and
related CBD 2020
targets
Quantity of individuals or biomass of a given demographic class of a given taxon or functional group at a given location
1 year
Available for some managed species (hunting and fisheries), usually geographically restricted Abundance & distribution of populations/taxon per se is an intuitive biodiversity metric with public resonance. Abundance & distribution contributes to extinction risk indicators & indicators of supply of ES associated with particular spp. Range shifts expected under climate change. Targets: 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15

EBV class - Species traits


Phenology

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Record timing of periodic biological events for selected taxa/phenomena at defined locations. Examplesinclude: timing of breeding, leaf coloration, flowering, migration, oceans flow pattern shifts, intermittent flows in rivers, extant of wetlands
1 year
Several ongoing initiatives (Phenological Eyes Network, PhenoCam, ClimateWatch, etc.), some resorting to citizen science contributions Phenology is expected to change with climate change. Targets: 10, 15

Body mass

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Body mass (mean and variance) of selected species (e..g. under harvest pressure), at selected sites (e.g. exploitation sites)
1 - 5 year
Data available for many important marine fisheries, but little data available for bushmeat and other exploited species groups There is evidence that mean body mass of some species may be changing in response to pressures such as harvesting. Targets: 6,7

Natal dispersion distance

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Record median/frequency distribution of dispersal distances of a sample of selected taxa. In marine species larval lifetime may be a useful surrogate
>10 years
Banding/marking and observation data available for some birds, mammals, turtles, fish, temperate trees Required in order to assess the impact of habitat fragmentation on species, project the spread of invasive species, project the impact of climate change on species and to combine with abundance data to assess extinction risk. Targets 5,6,9,10,11,12,15

Migratory behavior

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets

Record presence /absence /
destinations / pathways
of migrant selected taxa

1 to >10 years

Banding/marking/
tagging and observation data available for some birds, mammals, turtles fish, butterflies

Migratory behaviour expected to change under climate change & habitat fragmentation. Riverine migrations expected to be susceptible to dams etc. Targets 5,6,10,11,12

Demographic traits

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Effective reproductive rate (eg by age/size class) & survival rate (eg by age/size class) for selected taxa at selected locations
1 to >10 years
Data available for some fisheries, plus some birds, mammals, reptile, plants, and others, but little trend data Necessary to combine with other factors for assessing extinction risk, vulnerability to threats, Targets 4,6,8,9,12,15

Physiological traits

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
For instance, measurement of thermal tolerance or metabolic rate. Assess for selected taxa at selected locations expected to be affected by a specific driver
1 to >10 years
Some data available for corals, lizards, amphibians, insects May determine susceptibility to climate change impacts & may change under climate change. Targets 4,6,8,9,12,15

EBV class - Community composition


Taxonomic diversity

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Multi-taxa surveys (including by morphospecies) and metagenomics at selected in situ locations at consistent sampling scales over time. Hyper-spectral remote sensing over large ecosystems
5-10 years
Many intensive long-term research sites have excellent but uncoordinated data, and there are abundant baseline data for many locations in the terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms. Metagenomics and the possibilities of remote sensing are emerging fields This is a basic measure of interaction of species: what species live together. It is the basis of comunity classification and ecosystem health assessments. Functional type composition of the ecosystem is often derived from species composition of observed communities. Targets: 8, 10, 12, 14

Species interactions

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Studies of important interactions or interaction networks in selected communities, such as plant-bird seed dispersal systems
5-25 years
Some studies have monitored the structure of species interaction networks such as mutualistic networks (pollination and seed dispersal), soil food webs, host-parasite and herbivore-plant interactions. There is a lack of global or regional representativeness of these studies Global change is affecting species interactions, which are determinant in ecosystem functioning and services. Targets: 7, 9, 14, 15

EBV class - Ecosystem function


Net primary productivity

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Global mapping with modeling from remote sensing observations (FAPAR, ocean greenness) and selected in-situ locations (eddy covariance)
<=1 year
A network of regional networks of in-situ measurements exists (FLUXNET), and some global maps based on models and remote sensing are available. GCOS is also addressing this EBV Indicator of the energy flow through ecosystem and a measure of health/degradation; Support biodiveristy at multiple dimensions/trophic levels, regulates climate, impacts on human wellbeing, possible of indicator shifts into alternate ecosystem states; underpins all production-based ecosystem services. Targets: 5, 8, 14

Secondary productivity

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Measurement of secondary productivity for selected functional groups, combining in-situ, remote sensing, and models. Example functional groups include: fisheries; livestock; krill; herbivorous birds
1 year
FAO and national statistics on fish and livestock production Important to assess ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services. Targets: 6, 7, 14

Nutrient retention

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Ratio of nutrient output from the system to nutrient input, measured at selected in situ locations. Can be combined with models and remote sensing to extrapolate regionally
1 year
Some intensive monitoring sites have nitrogen saturation monitoring is some acid-deposition areas; phosphorus retention monitoring in some impacted rivers and estuaries Nutrient loss or accumulation affects biodiversity and ecosystems services. Targets: 5, 8, 14

Disturbance regime

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Type, seasonal timing, intensity and frequency of event-based external disruptions to ecosystem processes and struture. Examples: sea surface temperature and salinity (RS); scatterometry for winds (RS); trawling pressure (in situ); flood regimes (in situ); fire frequency (in situ, RS); cultivation/ harvest (RS); windthrow; pests (in situ)
1 year
Abundant data is avaliable for several perturbations, sometimes at the global scale, although harmonization and integration is needed Key determinant of ecosystem function, structure and composition; changes in the disturbance regime lead to changes in biodiversity. Targets: 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15

EBV class - Ecosystem structure


Habitat structure

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Remote sensing measurements of cover (or biomass) by height (or depth) classes globally or regionally, to provide a 3-dimensional description of habitats
<=1 year
Global terrestrial maps available with RS (e.g., LIDAR). Marine and freshwater habitats mapped by combining RS and in situ data Proxy for biomass in ecosystems; key deteminant of habitat suitability for biodiversity; basis for land cover classification. Relevant for targets: 5, 11, 14, 15

Ecosystem extent and fragmentation

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Local (aerial photo and in-situ monitoring) to global mapping (satellite observations) of natural/semi-natural forests, wetlands, free running rivers, coral reef live cover, benthos cover, etc
1-5 years
Global maps of forests, assessment of fragmentation for major river basins, and local to regional maps of coral reefs already exist, but comparable observations over time are limited and distinction between natural and modified ecosystems (e.g. natural forests versus plantations) is often not made This is a key measure of human impacts on ecosystems. It can be used to derive indicators such as extent of forests and forest types, mangrove extent, seagrass extent, coral reef condition. Targets: 5, 7, 10, 14, 15

Ecosystem composition by functional type

Measurement and scalability Temporal sensitivity Feasibility Relevance and related CBD 2020 targets
Functional types can be directly infered from morphology (in situ) or from remote sensing
5 years
Implicitly part of current ecosystem maps. Some models (e.g. DGVMs, marine ecosystem models) are based on functional groups This is a basis for ecosystem classification and lends itself to remote sensing. It can be used to predict ecosystem function and ecosystem services. Targets: 5, 14, 15